The Treaty of Kars (Turkish: Kars Antla-masa, Russian: Karskiy dogovor) was a treaty of friendship signed in Kars on 13 October 1921[1] and ratified in Yerevan on 11 September 1922. Among the signatories were representatives of the Grand National Assembly of Turkey, which was to proclaim the Republic of Turkey in 1923, as well as the future Soviet Army, Soviet Azerbaijan and Soviet Georgia, all members of the Soviet Union under the Treaty of the Union in December 1922, with the participation of Bolshevik Russia. [1] [2] He succeeded the former Moscow Treaty of March 1921 and the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, which marked Russia`s exit from World War I, and established contemporary borders between Turkey and the States of the South Caucasus. He contributed to the end of the Battle of Sardarabad and the Caucasus campaign as a whole. The Kremlin`s reassessment of the 1921 Moscow Treaty is just the latest episode in the recent saga of Russian-Turkish tensions. Despite the result, it is clear that the impact of this saga on the Caucasus is already being felt. The borders of Turkey, as well as the borders of Georgia, Armenia and Azerbaijan, as defined in the Treaty of Kars (signed on 13 October 1921) are still in place. The treaty was confirmed in October 1921 by the Treaty of Kars and the borders it established have been maintained ever since. This did not mean, however, that Soviet politicians necessarily accepted the terms of the treaty as sustainable. After World War II, when the Soviet Union was at the height of its power, its leader Stalin reopened the affair on behalf of Armenia and its native Georgia. Backed by Moscow, the two republics began to assert territorial claims against Ankara.

According to Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev, Stalin took this step at the request of Lavrentiy Beria, the deputy prime minister and other Georgians. The Treaty of Kars, signed in the autumn of 1921, established the boundaries between the Soviet Union and the Republic of Turkey and illustrated the status of the orphan region of Nakhichevan, with its mixed Armenian and Azerbaijani demographics. The Kars contract also recognized the autonomous status of the Adjaria region with its Black Sea port of Batumi. The former region was placed under the Soviet aegis of Azerbaijan, the latter under Soviet Georgian sucenity.